瞬時記憶差,不知有無此症

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Danielhk | 2020-02-13 09:48
[i=s] 本帖最後由 Danielhk 於 20-2-13 09:59 編輯 [/i] 兒子小二,中英數常都很差。我個人觀察下來,瞬時記憶不行:

1.中文寫字,要看一筆寫一筆。我要求先記憶再寫或者先記憶部首,很難記住。

2.英文記憶拼詞困難。比如口中反覆d-o-g dog ,你換到cat一次,換回dog,就不記得了。

3.數學九九乘法表,記一個後,換下一個,上一個不記得了。目前小二,十以內減法偶爾出錯,二十以內加減法困難。


4.長記憶出色。中文英文的課文,一起訓練三五遍,就可以背誦。但課文如果某個字記憶錯誤,很難糾正。

5.小時候出門,從不遺忘隨身物品或玩具。離開遊樂場,很多次,都是兒子提醒我。相反,哥哥漏忘物品無數次。

6.三歲讀幼稚園前不識顏色和形狀。六歲讀小學時,無法寫出26個英文字母。但小學第一次考試,老師讀題。中文可以考9x。後來歷次考試或默書都不及格。喜歡樂高,高達。可以快速和同齡人成為好朋友。

目前按照讀寫障礙處理。但我感覺,所有症狀,都與他的瞬時記憶缺失有關。不知是否有此類劃分。




fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:11
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瞬時記憶缺失

在學術上,没有找到「瞬時記憶」這個名詞。

只有「工作記憶」 Working memory or short-term memory

fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:20
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[size=14.0pt]閱讀殘疾兒童的工作記憶不足
研究摘要


該研究的目的是調查閱讀障礙兒童的工作記憶能力不足的特異性,並探討是否可以通過處理能力不足或言語短期儲存能力下降來彌補他們的不足。

將一組10歲的閱讀障礙兒童與兩組正常閱讀的兒童進行比較,分別按時間順序和閱讀年齡進行匹配。管理與語言和數字域相關的工作記憶容量,短期容量和處理速度的度量。


結果表明,閱讀障礙兒童在所有工作記憶能力量度上的表現均較差,無論這些量度所反映的領域如何。它們的較差性能既不能用低效的處理來解釋,也不能用語言短期存儲能力的不足來解釋。

有閱讀障礙的兒童似乎普遍缺乏同時處理和存儲口頭信息的能力。

[size=10.5pt]De Jong, Peter F. , (1998). [size=12.0pt]Working Memory Deficits of Reading Disabled Children, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 70(2), 75-96.

fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:25
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Original English version of the above research

Abstract

Aims of the study were to investigate thespecificity of reading disabled childrens deficits in working memory capacityand to pursue whether their deficits could be accounted for by deficientprocessing or impairments in verbal short-term storage capacity.

A group of10-year-old reading disabled children was compared with two groups of normalreading children, matched for chronological age and reading age, respectively.Measures for working memory capacity, short-term capacity and processing speedrelated to the language and to the numerical domain were administered. Resultsindicated that reading disabled children performed worse on all measures ofworking memory capacity, irrespective of the domain which these measuresreflected.

Their poorer performance could neither be explained by inefficientprocessing nor to their deficits in verbal short-term storage capacity. Readingdisabled children seem to have a general lack of capacity for the concurrentprocessing and storage of verbal information.

[size=10.5pt]De Jong, Peter F. , (1998). Working Memory Deficits of Reading Disabled Children, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 70(2), 75-96.


fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:37
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[size=14.0pt]理解能力較差的工作記憶障礙反映了潛在的語言障礙

[size=12.0pt]研究摘要

[size=12.0pt]三個實驗評估了良好和較弱理解者的記憶能力,並與解碼能力相匹配。實驗[size=12.0pt]1[size=12.0pt]和[size=12.0pt]2[size=12.0pt]通過比較長度,詞法和具體程度各不相同的單詞的連續回憶,研究了語音和語義對短期記憶的貢獻。較差的理解者對語音操作(長度和詞法性)表現出正常的敏感性,但是,由於其語義上的弱點,他們對抽象單詞的記憶力很差。實驗[size=12.0pt]3[size=12.0pt]研究了言語和空間工作記憶。

[size=12.0pt]儘管理解力較差的人達到了正常的空間跨度,但他們的語言跨度卻受到了損害。在理論框架內討論了這些結果,在該理論框架中,與閱讀理解能力差有關的記憶困難是語言領域特有的,並且是語言障礙的伴隨因素,而不是閱讀理解失敗的原因。

[size=10.5pt]Nation,Kate., Adams, John W., Bowyer-Crane, Caludine A., Snowling, Margaret, J.(1999). Working Memory Deficits in Poor Comprehenders Reflect UnderlyingLanguage Impairments, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 73(2) 139-158.
fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:38
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[size=10.5pt]Nation, Kate., Adams, John W., Bowyer-Crane,Caludine A., Snowling, Margaret, J. (1999). Working Memory Deficits in Poor ComprehendersReflect Underlying Language Impairments, Journal of Experimental ChildPsychology, 73(2) 139-158.
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[size=10.5pt]Abstract
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[size=10.5pt]Three experiments assessedmemory skills in good and poor comprehenders, matched for decoding skill.Experiments 1 and 2 investigated phonological and semantic contributions toshort-term memory by comparing serial recall for words varying in length, lexicality,and concreteness. Poor comprehenders showed normal sensitivity to phonologicalmanipulations (length and lexicality) but, consistent with their semanticweaknesses, their recall of abstract words was poor. Experiment 3 investigatedverbal and spatial working memory. While poor comprehenders achieved normalspatial spans, their verbal spans were impaired.
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[size=10.5pt]These results are discussedwithin a theoretical framework in which the memory difficulties associated withpoor reading comprehension are specific to the verbal domain and are aconcomitant of language impairment, rather than a cause of readingcomprehension failure.


fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:49
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[size=12.0pt]可以克服工作記憶缺陷:訓練和藥物治療對注意力缺乏及多動症(ADHD)兒童工作記憶的影響
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[size=10.5pt]這項研究評估了兩種干預措施(培訓計劃和刺激性藥物)對注意力缺陷多動障礙([size=10.5pt]ADHD[size=10.5pt])兒童的工作記憶([size=10.5pt]WM[size=10.5pt])功能的影響。[size=10.5pt] 25[size=10.5pt]名[size=10.5pt]8[size=10.5pt]至[size=10.5pt]11[size=10.5pt]歲的兒童參加了將[size=10.5pt]WM[size=10.5pt]技能征稅到極限的培訓,至少持續[size=10.5pt]20[size=10.5pt]天,並在培訓前後進行了[size=10.5pt]WM[size=10.5pt]和[size=10.5pt]IQ[size=10.5pt]的其他評估,有無處方藥治療。
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[size=10.5pt]雖然藥物顯著改善了視覺空間記憶性能,但培訓導致[size=10.5pt]WM[size=10.5pt]所有組件在未經培訓的任務中均獲得了可觀的收益。與中央執行官相關的培訓收益持續了六個月。智商得分不受任何干預的影響。這些發現表明,通過訓練和刺激性藥物可不同程度地改善多動症兒童的[size=10.5pt]WM[size=10.5pt]損傷。版權所有[size=10.5pt]©2009John Wiley[size=10.5pt]&[size=10.5pt]Sons[size=10.5pt],[size=10.5pt]Ltd.

[size=12.0pt]Holmes, Joni., Gathercole, Susan E.,Place, Maurice., Dunning, Darren L., & Hilton, Kerry A. (2009). [size=12.0pt]Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6).
https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1589



fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 19:50
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[size=13.5pt]Abstract
[size=13.5pt]
full text see below

[size=12.0pt]Hilton, Kerry A. (2009). [size=12.0pt]Working memory deficits can be overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in children with ADHD, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6). https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1589
fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 20:09
[i=s] 本帖最後由 fyusy245 於 20-2-15 20:10 編輯 [/i] 回覆 fyusy245 的帖子

[size=12.0pt]Holmes, Joni., Gathercole,Susan E., Place, Maurice., Dunning, Darren L., & Hilton, Kerry A. (2009). [size=12.0pt]Working memory deficits canbe overcome: Impacts of training and medication on working memory in childrenwith ADHD, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(6). https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.1589
[size=13.5pt]Abstract
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[size=12.0pt]Thisstudy evaluated the impact of two interventions—a training program and stimulant medication—on working memory (WM) function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty[size=12.0pt]‐[size=12.0pt]five children aged between 8 and 11 years participated in training that taxed WM skills to the limit for a minimum of 20days, and completed other assessments of WM and IQ before and after training,and with and without prescribed drug treatment.
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[size=12.0pt]While medication significantly improved visuo[size=12.0pt]‐[size=12.0pt]spatial memory performance, training led to substantial gains in all components of W Macross untrained tasks. Training gains associated with the central executive persisted over a 6[size=12.0pt]‐[size=12.0pt]month period. IQ scores were unaffected by either intervention. These findings indicate that the WM impairments in children with ADHD can be differentially ameliorated by training and by stimulant medication. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.



fyusy245 | 2020-02-15 20:28
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[size=10.5pt]工作記憶的定義
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[size=10.5pt]工作記憶是指為諸如語言理解,學習和推理之類的複雜認知任務提供必要信息的臨時存儲和操縱的大腦系統。這個定義是從單一短期記憶系統的概念演變而來的。已經發現工作存儲器需要同時存儲和處理信息。
[size=10.5pt]
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[size=10.5pt]已經發現工作記憶需要同時存儲和處理信息。它可以分為以下三個子部分:([size=10.5pt]i[size=10.5pt])中央執行機構,被認為是注意力控制系統,在像棋遊戲等技能中很重要,特別容易受到阿爾茨海默氏病的影響;還有兩個從屬系統,即([size=10.5pt]ii[size=10.5pt])視覺空間草圖板,用於操縱視覺圖像;以及([size=10.5pt]iii[size=10.5pt])語音迴路,用於存儲和演練基於語音的信息,並且對於獲取本機語言和第二語言詞彙都是必不可少的。


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